W Polsce od wielu lat (30? 40?) istnieje ruch, skupiający admiratorów kultur indiańskich obu Ameryk. Wraz z upływem czasu z małej grupki przyjaciół powstało wielkie, nieformalne zgromadzenie. W nim każdy może rozwijać swoje osobiste zainteresowania - jako studiowanie historii, tradycji, współczesnej
sytuacji politycznej czy rękodzieła - w dowolny sposób. Oczywiście poza tym ruchem również działają ludzie o takich zainteresowaniach. Poniżej linki do stron poświęconym Indianom w polskim internecie - przyjaciół, znajomych i nieznajomych - z krótkim opisem.
Poniżej krótki wstęp do "sprawy wannabe" i dalsze linki, dyskusja o złodziejstwie kulturowym oraz "byciu Indianinem". W cytowanych artykułach i moich osobistych wypowiedziach wszelkie podobieństwo jest absolutnie przypadkowe :)
Polskie strony poświęcone Pierwszym Narodom - Rdzennym Amerykanom
Największy serwis indianistyczny w Polsce, związany m.in. z Redakcją Tawacinu
Jarek i jego "wioska"
Moja ulubiona strona HO'NEHE o Czejenach u Artura
Huuskaluta - polskie powwow
NESENE - Czejenowie
strona BogDana o tych, którzy jako ostatni poddali się Białym
Oglala Sioux - o Oglalach Sioux :). Jest też duże forum indianistyczne, bardzo uczęszczane.
I jeszcze jedno forum
Wigwam - miesięcznik
Strona Żuczka (o Crow) - dużo praktycznych porad dotyczących rzemiosła
- Alternatywny punkt informacyjny
Yuha (Czarne Wrony) u Łosia - ostatnio nie działa
serwis Wapiti u Sowy
Warrior - Indianie Leśni
o Szewanezach - ostatnio niedostępna
Piotra Tkacza (Ameryka Łacińska)
grupa folk Catawba
Rafała Cieślaka "Giweyo" (Indianie Leśni)
Strona Olka i Ani, i jeszcze raz, pod innym adresem i na inny temat
Ameryka Łacińska u Stasi
Lakota - podobno niedługo ma zacząć działać
Hau Kola - kolejna grupa folk
Indianie w Lublinie
Indianie na KUL'u
Strona Ośrodka Badań Prekolumbijskich UW
Jeszcze jedna strona
Jeśli masz lub znasz polską stronę bardziej lub mniej o Indianach, przyślij jej adres
Indianiści i Indianie
Wannabes - zabawa w Indian
Chciałabym poruszyć na tej stronie kontrowersyjny problem, który nurtuje lub
nurtował kiedyś wielu z polskich indianistów - czy indianizm jest etyczny i w jakim zakresie. Dla
części z nas kultury indiańskie są tylko takim samym hobby jak motocykle Harley-Davidson -
połączone z poczuciem przynależności do grupy, odrębności przez swoja oryginalność. Dla innej
części to podstawa do działań społecznych, zwalczających niesprawiedliwość
społeczną i agenturalne działania mające na celu zniszczenie wszelkich odrębności
powodujących zróżnicowanie potrzeb populacji a co za tym idzie zwiększone
koszty utrzymania państwa. W końcu cześć z nas przejmuje bezkrytycznie
filozofię lub/i sposób myślenia lub/i tradycje lub/i wierzenia lub/i inne cechy
jakiejś kultury indiańskiej, lub na własny użytek wypracowuje mieszaninę
poszczególnych tradycji biorąc z każdej to co mu najbardziej odpowiada.
Czy jesteśmy wannabe, czyli Tymi, Którzy Chcą Być (ang."wanna be", "want to be")?
Jeśli tak, to gdzie przebiega granica miedzy zwykłym zainteresowaniem a takim
właśnie "chciejstwem"? Jeśli nie, to kim jest osoba mieszkająca w teepee i
przestrzegająca zasad przebywania w nim według jakiejkolwiek tradycji lub oczyszczająca
się szałwią? I co myślą o tym sami Indianie? Poniżej wybrałam kilka artykułów
i linków oraz literaturę. Wiem, ze jest to wybór bardzo subiektywny, ale jak wiemy, prawda obiektywna nie istnieje,
Można jednak spróbować zbliżyć się do niej, wiec może zostaw swój głos na forum?
To co mnie osobiście najbardziej zainteresowało to fakt, ze pojawia się coraz
więcej publikacji pisanych przez samych Pierwszych Amerykanów, autorów znanych i uznanych, jak
np. Vine Deloria, co świadczy, ze nie jest to problem marginalny
Wypada także przetłumaczyć pejoratywne określenie "twinkies". Są to ludzie, którzy idą dalej, niż wannabe - admiratorzy kultur indiańskich. Sprzedają oni to, czego sami nie powinni robić - skompilowane filozofie na "Warsztatach Duchowości Indiańskiej", szałasy pary i udział w innych ceremoniach. Jest tam kilka znanych nazwisk i stron, m.in. Sun Bear albo Wallace Black Elk. W artykule poniżej znajdziesz informacje, jak nie być wannabe ani twinky
A oto jeden z postów z listy dyskusyjnej, gdzie gorącym tematem stał się
ślub pewnej pary nie-Indian ubranych w stroje. Część dyskutantów nie robiła z tego problemu, jednak większość poczuła
się urażona. W końcu wspomniano o niemieckich indianistach i ich "przebierankach" Oto jaka nadeszła odpowiedź:
Od: Lynda <email@example.com>
Data: 8 listopada 2001 17:05
Temat: Re: If you can stand one more thought on the
Both Germany and Russia have clubs that do this routinely.
Both have sent folks over to buy regalia, to go to these idiots
(see I didn't even swear, sometimes I can behave myself) that sell ceremony and "teach" spirituality
AND have even paid to have some of these "real" indians
come over to their countries to do ceremony and to be the guest
at these dress up weekends and weeks they put on.
Oczywiście, jest to tylko jeden z wielu głosów w dyskusji. Czy jednak możemy pozwolić sobie ignorować go? Nasuwa się to nieodmiennie pytanie o tzw. złodziejstwo kulturowe - cultural theft. Gdzie znajduje się ta granica między zainteresowaniem a wykorzystywaniem? Oto przykład
2 sierpnia 2001: Kiedy szacunek i zainteresowanie wartościami innych kultur zamienia się w kradzież
Editor/Historical Activist: Terri Jean
Director of The Red Roots Educational Project
Established year 2000
When honoring and borrowing one's cultural identity
turns into thievery
by Terri Jean
"Among the Indians there have been no written laws. Customs handed down from generation to generation have been the only laws to guide them. Every one might act different from what was considered right did he choose to do so, but such acts would bring upon him the censure of the Nation.... This fear of the Nation's censure acted as a mighty band, binding all in one social, honorable compact." ~ George Copway (Kah-ge-ga-bowh) ~ Ojibwa, 1818-1863
Not too long ago, an acquaintance introduced me to his new "Indian pal" who moved just across the road. The first thing I noticed about this fella was his beaded war bonnet dangling from his rear view mirror and a hand-painted "Cherokee Proud" sign proudly mounted to his back bumper. When invited inside, the man's wife smiled and showed me into her family room and, when learning of who I was, proceeded to show off her DreamCatcher (hanging above the sofa,) Hamilton plate collection of various Native scenes, an "Indian" doll collection, her crystal "spirituality" necklace and even a Native American nativity set sitting upon the television. I politely left - handing them subscription information to my column - right around the time they pulled out the plans for building their own backyard Sweat Lodge and kids teepee.
When we departed my acquaintance asked "What did you think?" And my only reply was... "So many are misguided... They want to become part of something they only know through books and movies - material stolen from Native people and then warped to meet an outsiders needs. I see it all the time..."
"First they came to take our land and water, then our fish and game. ...Now they want our religions as well. All of a sudden, we have a lot of unscrupulous idiots running around saying they're medicine people. And they'll sell you a sweat lodge ceremony for fifty bucks. It's not only wrong, its obscene. Indians don't sell their spirituality to anybody, for any price. This is just another in a very long series of thefts from Indian people and, in some ways, this is the worst one yet." Janet McCloud, Tulalip. Source: Z Magazine, Dec.`90
Stolen? What do you mean it's stolen?
Indigenous activists from all over the world fight to retain their cultural and intellectual property - a battle fought with opponents who, for the most part, do not even realize they are committing an offensive act. And even if they do know their actions are questionable, they often justify it in one manner or another. In this month's Native Truth column, we'll examine the definition of Wannabe's, Twinkies, and Exploiters and perhaps shed some light on these controversial issues.
What is Cultural Property?
Culture is the expression of a group of people: their values, language, music, literature, healing practices, traditions, spiritual belief system, agriculture, art, names, holidays, folklore, and ceremonies.
Are you a Wannabe?
There is a difference between a person who seeks to learn more about Native Americans in general (or are in search of their Native American ancestry) - and a Wannabe Indian. Actually, a respectable admiration of tribal people is a compliment - as is a desire to locate long-lost bloodties and connect with distant relatives from all over the planet.
On the other hand, a Wannabe Indian is a person who wants to be involved in the culture - whether they have the bloodties or not. They mimic what they see on television - usually a romanticized or nature-oriented images - and read white-washed books that explain indigenous matter from a non-Native point of view. He gains knowledge from erroneous material and, often times, thinks he knows all he needs to know to `be an Indian.' In reality, he knows little (or nothing at all) on the current plight and issues of the Native people, rather choosing to live his life within the boundaries of distorted images, fictionalized "wisdom" and circumstances of days gone by.
He speaks for "his people" and often times collects all that is "Indian." Trinkets from the gas station, Sitting Bull T-shirts made in Korea, and DreamCatchers purchased at the local craft mall. All of this is meant to make him feel more part of the Native community - though he's probably never been to a Native community to begin with.
I'm sure that no one reading this column wishes to be placed in the Wannabe category.
Here's a few tips to keep you from receiving such a label:
* Items such as the Native American Barbie, non-Native made Dream Catchers, little plastic headdresses (for the car), Hamilton plates and figurines, medicine bags, calendars, posters, greeting cards, Cowboy & Indian toys, and Indian blankets made in Korea are considered, by many, to be insulting. Rather, buy genuine products and support genuine Native American people and businesses.
* Research Thanksgiving and Christopher Columbus day before you celebrate them.
* Purchase Native American books, movies and music from well-known American Indians.
* Know that movies like Dances with Wolves are not accurate history lessons or Native representation.
* Be leery of Native American/New Age crap. Tarot (Medicine) cards, crystal jewelry, "Native American Spirituality" books, Medicine Wheel readings and "Totem Quests" are - to be honest - a bunch of bull.
* Do not try to look "Indian" by dying your hair and braiding them, wearing feathered headbands, or wearing "Native American" clothing.
* Learn more about Native issues such as Leonard Peltire's freedom, mascot, treaty rights, sovereignty, casino's, and so on. Support them when you can.
* Don't give yourself a Native American name.
* If you want to be part of the Native culture, you must first know their history and meet their people. And if you have Native bloodties, take the time to try and fill in your family tree. Then you'll know where you truly belong.
* Do not participate in - or reconstruct for yourself - a ceremony or ritual that is not of your people (such as the sweat lodge, vision quest, etc) unless invited by an reputable person. And never pay to participate in one.
* LISTEN! You can only gain wisdom by learning from others.
BEWARE of TWINKIES!
A Twinkie goes a bit further than a Wannabe. While most Wannabe's are harmless admirers of Native cultures, Twinkies are people who claim to be Indian just so they can swindle you out of money and rob you spiritually. They are usually attention-seekers masquerading as enlightened Shamans, spiritual teachers, healers or leaders. An example would be those who charge $100 a pop to put you through the paces of a Vision Quest or a Sweat Lodge (true spiritual leaders never charge for their services.) I've seen some people charge up to $3000 for a week-long "Native American" Spiritual Workshop, or $50.00 for a crystal healing ceremony. Twinkies to watch out for include: Grace Spotted Eagle and Wallace Black Elk (Sweat Lodge Workshops), Osheana Fast, Bear Tribe Medicine Society, WolfVision Quest, Inc., Quanda the "Healing Woman", and Cyfus McDonald
Twinkie authors are quite common and often have a following. Jamie Sams, Ted Andrews, Mary Summer Rain, Sun Bear, and Brook Medicine Eagle are just a few that need to be avoided.
Many of the Twinkies are peddling Native American Spirituality - targeting people searching for a deeper sense of self and a connection with a deity, and with the earth. These Twinkies borrow from various beliefs and practices - combining them into a New Age religion that can be sold over the Internet via books, chants, candles, crystals and so on. This New Age trend is actually a distorted image of various Native practices and rituals and in no way reflects the true belief systems of Native people and communities. These Twinkies are indeed stealing from the Native people, and to do so is not only wrong (supposedly going against all that they preach to begin with) but it is also patronizing, and insulting.
"Each one must learn for himself the highest wisdom. It cannot be taught in words."
~ Smowhala ~ Wanapum
Continued on part 2.....
And then there's the EXPLOITERS
And now we get to the bottom of the barrel. Most exploiters are profit-hungry companies mass-producing various cultural knockoff's - selling everything from Medicine Bags, blankets and turquoise jewelry to "peace pipes," Jeep Cherokee vehicles, and Crazy Horse Beer. Even Disney falls into this category - making millions from their inaccurate and stereotypical children's movie and merchandise, Pocahontas.
Just last month I involved myself in an intriguing email "discussion" pertaining to the issue of cultural theft with a California man who calls himself "Aboriginal Steve." Now... Aboriginal Steve proudly sells boomerangs and even teaches people how to use them. But what Steve does for a living isn't necessarily the issue - the problem lies with his chosen name and the image he portrays to the public.
When Steve and I started "chatting," the first question I needed answered was whether he was "Aboriginal." After all, when I heard the name "Aboriginal Steve" I immediately assumed he was a Native
Australian Aborigine. Steve responded: "You are aware that I do not speak for Indigenous People of Australia" and that he was born in California. He also stated that his using the word "Aboriginal" was not, in his opinion, offensive and that there are more important issues facing the worlds indigenous people that should be addressed. My response was as follows:
~ Though I agree with you that health care, education, etc. are important issues, so is cultural theft. Today aboriginal people are stereotyped in the media, in the news, in literature and in history books. When for-profits use Native names, images and cultural practices as ways and means of making money, it adds to those stereotypes... which then escalates the other problems such as health care and education. It turns Native people into characters rather than a group of people, thusly encouraging society to think of them in terms of images and clichés - which makes it easier to deny them rights, historical accuracy and respect. After all, if their not really people, and their race is not respected, it's easy to disregard their needs. This, in my opinion, is the heart of all Native issues.... Cultural theft definitely needs to be addressed. Once people realize that it IS a big deal, then the other problems can be dealt with. To call yourself something that you are not - and to do it as a market ploy to sell a product - perpetrates the problem. It's that simple. ~
"Aboriginal Steve" responded by saying that "Acceptance and sharing is the only thing that will reduce [hate and fear]" - in which I responded that Native people have "shared" everything (via force, "conquest," friendship, agreement, and so on) and have only their culture to hold on to. Now non-Natives such as Steve wants to "share" in that also. Participating in the identity of a group that wishes you not to "share" in their culture is, indeed, cultural theft.
And Steve is doing exactly that. Many within the Aboriginal Australian community are strongly opposed to the use of the name "Aboriginal"... especially to sell boomerangs. The term is a part of their identity and he is using that identity to sell a product from their culture - marketing it as though he, himself, was a member of that group. I have spoken to many Aboriginals in Australia currently fighting against businessowners like Steve and I feel sympathetic to their cause - a cause very similar to the Cultural Theft issue fought by Native American Indians here in the states.
Unfortunately, capitalists such as Steve litter the globe - offending and insulting as they go. A few examples: Cherokee line of clothing, a baseball team called "The Redskins," butter with an Indian Princess on the label, and how can we forget the Eskimo pie?
I think it's safe to say that nobody wants to be a Twinkie.
Unfortunately, the Wannabe people of the IWISHIWAS tribe is increasing - and so is the concern from the Native people who wish to protect their folklore, art, literature, music, spiritual beliefs, ceremonies and basic cultural practices. It may soon be a matter for the courts; a cultural copyright issue sure to spark controversy and raise oppostition from pseudo-Indians, Twinkies and big-businesses alike.
What is comes down to is this: The Native people have had nearly everything stolen from them. Land, homes, children, burial grounds, and more. Do we really need to say to them "And now we want everything else. And we're not waiting for an invitation."
The irony is: most Native principals are based on RESPECT. Stealing one's cultural identity and metamorphosing it into your own belief system is not only narcissistic, it's the epitome of DISRESPECT. You cannot be a Wannabe, a Twinkie or an Exploiter and honor the people that you are exploiting. It's that simple.
Jakich książek i autorów należy się trzymać, a jakich unikać
Jest wielu utalentowanych, szanowanych i uznanych pisarzy Indian. Kilku moich ulubionych to: Vine Deloria, Jr., Paula Gunn Allen, Janet Campbell Hale, Joseph Bruchac, Anna Lee Walters, Twylah Hurd Nitsch, and N. Scott Momaday.
Należy unikać tych książek:
Alice Dalgliesh, The Courage of Sarah Noble. New York: Macmillan (1954, 1991)
Ann Rinaldi, My Heart Is On the Ground: The Diary of Nannie Little Rose, a Sioux Girl. Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania, 1880. New York: Scholastic (1999)
The Indian in the Cupboard and The Return of the Indian. Both use stereotypical imagery including broken speech: "I help... I go... Big hole. I go through... Want fire. Want make dance. Call spirits."
The Education of Little Tree - written under the pseudonym, Forrest Carter who claimed to be an orphaned Cherokee. In reality, the author was Earl Carter, a former member of the KKK and speechwriter for George Wallace.
Susan Jeffers, Brother Eagle, Sister Sky, Illustrated by the author. New York: Dial (1991).
Ann Turner, The Girl Who Chased Away Sorrow: The Diary of Sarah Nita, a Navajo Girl. New Mexico, 1864. New York: Scholastic (1999), Dear America Series
Albert Marrin, Sitting Bull and His World. New York: Dutton (2000)
Elizabeth George Speare, The Sign of the Beaver. New York: Dell (1983)
Michael L. Cooper, Indian School: Teaching the White Man's Way. New York: Clarion (1999). Possibly one of the worst books I've read on the Indian Boarding School experience. He gave a presentation on Book-TV once and a child asked him if he spoke to any Native people when writing the book. He said no, because it was a bad experience for them and they didn't like to talk about it. Of all the books I've reviewed, this one was my least favorite.
Bibliografia i dodatkowe zródla:
--> The Harm of Native Stereotyping
--> Oyate Organization - lista ksiazek, których nalezy unikac
--> Sciana Wstydu
A Little Matter of Genocide by Ward Churchill. City Lights Books, 1997
UWAGA NAUCZYCIELE!! I need to put together a small discussion panel on teaching children Historical Truths of the American Indians (I am writing a workbook.) If you would like to be involved, please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Thanks! ~ Terri Jean
Reprinting of this column is permitted as long as you republish the entire column. Be sure to include the author's byline and subscription information to The Native Truth. Also, we would appreciate notice of the articles republication. If you would like to republish SNIPPETS of this piece, contact Terri Jean at the address above
Lista polecanych publikacji:
Deloria, Philip J. Playing Indian. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1998.
Green, Rayna. "The Tribe Called Wannabee: Playing Indian in America and Europe" Folklore 99.I(1987):30-55.
Mayo, Lisa. "Appropriation and the Plastic Shaman." Canadian Theatre Review 68 (Fall 1991).
Rose, Wendy. "The Great Pretender. Further Reflections on Whiteshamanism." The State of Native America. Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. Ed. M. Annette Jaimes. Boston, Mass.: South End Press, 1992. 403-21.